Visipedia is a joint project between Pietro Perona's Vision Group at Caltech and Serge Belongie's Vision Group at Cornell Tech. Visipedia, short for “Visual Encyclopedia,” is an augmented version of Wikipedia, where pictures are first-class citizens alongside text. Goals of Visipedia include creation of hyperlinked, interactive images embedded in Wikipedia articles, scalable representations of visual knowledge, largescale machine vision datasets, and visual search capabilities. Toward achieving these goals, Visipedia advocates interaction and collaboration between machine vision and human users and experts.
Visual Recognition With Humans in the Loop
We present an interactive, hybrid human-computer method for object classification. The method applies to classes of problems that are difficult for most people, but are recognizable by people with the appropriate expertise (e.g., animal species or airplane model recognition). The classification method can be seen as a visual version of the 20 questions game, where questions based on simple visual attributes are posed interactively. The goal is to identify the true class while minimizing the number of questions asked, using the visual content of the image. Incorporating user input drives up recognition accuracy to levels that are good enough for practical applications; at the same time, computer vision reduces the amount of human interaction required. The resulting hybrid system is able to handle difficult, large multi-class problems with tightly-related categories.
We introduce a general framework for incorporating almost any off-the-shelf multi-class object recognition algorithm into the visual 20 questions game, and provide methodologies to account for imperfect user responses and unreliable computer vision algorithms. We evaluate the accuracy and computational properties of different computer vision algorithms and the effects of noisy user responses on a dataset of 200 bird species and on the Animals With Attributes dataset. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of the hybrid human-computer classification paradigm.
Online crowdsourcing: rating annotators and obtaining cost-effective labels
Labeling large datasets has become faster, cheaper, and easier with the advent of crowdsourcing services like Amazon Mechanical Turk. How can one trust the labels obtained from such services? We propose a model of the labeling process which includes label uncertainty, as well a multi-dimensional measure of the annotators’ ability. From the model we derive an online algorithm that estimates the most likely value of the labels and the annotator abilities. It ﬁnds and prioritizes experts when requesting labels, and actively excludes unreliable annotators. Based on labels already obtained, it dynamically chooses which images will be labeled next, and how many labels to request in order to achieve a desired level of conﬁdence. Our algorithm is general and can handle binary, multi-valued, and continuous annotations (e.g. bounding boxes). Experiments on a dataset containing more than 50,000 labels show that our algorithm reduces the number of labels required, and thus the total cost of labeling, by a large factor while keeping error rates low on a variety of datasets.
Scalable Structured Learning and Annotation
We propose a framework for large scale learning and annotation of structured models. The system interleaves interactive labeling (where the current model is used to semi-automate the labeling of a new example) and online learning (where a newly labeled example is used to update the current model parameters). This framework is scalable to large datasets and complex image models and is shown to have excellent theoretical and practical properties in terms of train time, optimality guarantees, and bounds on the amount of annotation effort per image. We apply this framework to part-based detection, and introduce a novel algorithm for interactive labeling of deformable part models. The labeling tool updates and displays in real-time the maximum likelihood location of all parts as the user clicks and drags the location of one or more parts. We demonstrate that the system can be used to efﬁciently and robustly train part and pose detectors on the CUB Birds-200–a challenging dataset of birds in unconstrained pose and environment.